Node.js Express.js Framework

Node.js Express.js Framework

Section (1.6) - Node.js Express.js Framework

In this tutorial, you'll learn about the Express.js framework and how to use it with Node.js to build web applications. This guide is designed as a follow-along tutorial and educational reference, providing you with code examples and helpful information to make your software development tasks easier.


Introduction to Express.js

Express.js is a popular and flexible web application framework for Node.js, designed to simplify web application development. It provides a minimal interface for building web applications while allowing you to build upon its functionality using middleware.

Express.js offers several features, including:

  • Routing: Handle different URL paths and HTTP methods.
  • Middleware: Modularize your application and add extra functionality.
  • Template engines: Render server-side HTML templates with dynamic data.
  • Error handling: Catch and handle errors in a centralized manner.

To get started with Express.js, you'll need to install it as a dependency in your Node.js project:

npm install express

Creating an Express Application

To create an Express application, first require the express module and create an instance of the Express application:

const express = require('express');
const app = express();

Basic Routing

Express.js makes it easy to define routes for handling different URL paths and HTTP methods. Use the app.get(),, app.put(), and app.delete() methods to define routes for each HTTP method:

app.get('/', (req, res) => {
  res.send('Hello, World!');
});'/submit', (req, res) => {
  res.send('Form submitted');

// Add more routes as needed

In this example, we define a route for handling GET requests at the root URL (/) and a route for handling POST requests at the /submit URL.


Middleware functions are used to process and modify incoming requests and outgoing responses. Middleware can be used for various purposes, such as logging, authentication, and parsing request data.

To use middleware in your Express application, use the app.use() method:

app.use((req, res, next) => {
  console.log('Request received:', req.method, req.url);

In this example, we define a simple logging middleware that logs the request method and URL to the console. The next() function is called to continue processing the request and proceed to the next middleware or route handler.

Serving Static Files

To serve static files (e.g., images, CSS, JavaScript) with Express.js, use the express.static() middleware:


In this example, we serve static files from the public directory. You can replace 'public' with the name of the directory containing your static files.

Template Engines

Express.js supports various template engines for rendering HTML views with dynamic data. To use a template engine, first install the corresponding package (e.g., ejs, pug, handlebars) and configure Express.js to use it:

const ejs = require('ejs');

app.set('view engine', 'ejs');

In this example, we use the EJS template engine. Replace 'ejs' with the name of your preferred template engine.

Error Handling

To handle errors in your Express.js application, define error-handling middleware functions with four arguments (err, req, res, next). These functions are executed when an error is thrown or passed to the next() function:

app.use((err, req, res, next) => {
  res.status(500).send('Something went wrong!'); });

In this example, we define a basic error-handling middleware that logs the error stack trace to the console and sends a 500 status code along with an error message to the client.

Starting the Express Server

To start the Express server, use the app.listen() method:

const port = 3000;

app.listen(port, () => {
  console.log(`Express server running on port ${port}`);

In this example, we start the server on port 3000. Replace 3000 with your desired port number.





Frequently Asked Questions

Q: How can I handle URL parameters in Express.js routes?

A: You can define URL parameters in your routes using the colon (:) syntax. These parameters will be available as properties of the req.params object:

app.get('/user/:id', (req, res) => {
  const userId =;
  res.send(`User ID: ${userId}`);

In this example, we define a route with a URL parameter id. When a request is made to this route, the id parameter will be available as

Q: How can I parse the query string in Express.js?

A: Express.js automatically parses the query string and makes it available as an object in req.query. No additional setup is required:

app.get('/search', (req, res) => {
  const searchTerm = req.query.term;
  res.send(`Searching for: ${searchTerm}`);

In this example, we access the term query parameter from the req.query object.

Q: What is the difference between app.use() and app.get(),, etc.?

A: The app.use() method is used to define middleware functions that are executed for all incoming requests, regardless of the URL path or HTTP method. The app.get(),, and other similar methods are used to define route handlers for specific URL paths and HTTP methods.

Q: How can I handle form data in Express.js?

A: To handle form data, you can use the express.urlencoded() middleware to parse the incoming request data:

app.use(express.urlencoded({ extended: false }));'/submit', (req, res) => {
  const formData = req.body;
  // Process form data here

In this example, we use the express.urlencoded() middleware to parse the form data and make it available as an object in req.body.

Q: How can I handle JSON data in Express.js?

A: To handle JSON data, you can use the express.json() middleware to parse the incoming request data:

app.use(express.json());'/api/data', (req, res) => {
  const jsonData = req.body;
  // Process JSON data here

In this example, we use the express.json() middleware to parse the JSON data and make it available as an object in req.body.




In this tutorial, you learned about the Express.js framework and how it simplifies web application development with Node.js. You've learned how to create an Express application, handle routing, use middleware, serve static files, work with template engines, and handle errors.

With the knowledge gained in this tutorial, you're now better equipped to build powerful web applications using Express.js and Node.js. Continue to practice and experiment with different Express.js features to enhance your understanding and develop more sophisticated web applications.